Quantum-chemical hydro conversion of fuel and energy

«Since childhood everyone knows that, it is and it is impossible. But there’s one ‘ignoramus’ who doesn’t know it. He makes a discovery».

Albert Einstein

Chemical energy has special significance in a modern society since chemical reactions are the major source of high-quality energy. However in the process of converting that energy into electric energy (chemical -> heat -> kinetic -> mechanical -> electric) over half of that energy is lost. Heat energy accounts for the major part of such a loss. The only real way to drastically cut losses is the direct conversion of chemical energy to kinetic energy.

This objective may be successfully delivered via physical and chemical processes where energy conversion speed exceeds the speed of enabling equilibrium pattern for the energy released therewith.

Such a speed ratio is characteristic at explosions and detonation of fuel-air mixtures (FAM). In 1940 academician Y. B. Zel’dovich was the first to demonstrate positive effect of energy conversion speed to heat engines efficiency in his work «Use of detonation combustion for power production.» at transonic energy conversion speed up to 30% of fuel’s chemical energy may be converted to kinetic energy of energy conversion products; and only at supersonic conversion speed achieving conversion over 30% is possible. In such case the speed of energy conversion product stream may exceed 50% of energy conversion distribution speed. So it’s little left to do — effectively determine physical and chemical processes that take place during explosions and detonation of FAM and implement same mechanism while creating future-oriented energy units.

«Heat-focused» vision of explosion and detonation processes that currently prevails in scientific community (fuel oxidation reactions are triggered by strong shock wave) enables only copying nature and doesn’t help fully implement available potential of the said processes.

Triggering energy and fuel conversion is referred to quantum-chemical processes, i. e. to processes that did not originate from heat.

Three steps of established research of fuel and energy conversion.

  • Step 1 — search for ways of increasing chemical energy conversion speed (CEC) in ultra-lean mixtures (air excess factor of 4…5 units) with FAM containing: less than 5% of methane, less than 12% of oxygen, more than 30% of various CO2 combinations, more than 40% of H2O vapors and 0…85% of N2. Tests and optimization of technology were carried out at a specialized test-bench. No known processing methods to increase CEC speed (increasing initial temperature and FAM pressure; implementing known brand new chemical reaction trigger sources) were applied. Research has been completed. Experiments showed positive outcome. Technology has been patented. USP No. 7,086,854.
  • Step 2 — developed technology of high-speed CEC in ultra-lean FAMs was adapted for chemical energy conversion contained in lean FAMs (air excess factor of 0.99…1.99 units). Research was carried out at specialized test-bench and at operating 60 kW GTE. Research is finished. Experiments showed positive outcome.
  • Step 3 — investigated potential of developed technology to increase fuel chemical energy conversion to kinetic energy of conversion products. Research was carried out at specialized test-bench and at operating 1500 kW GTE. In quantum reactor tested at test-bench less than 15% of fuel chemical energy is converted to kinetic energy. In quantum reactor -more than 30% of fuel chemical energy is converted to kinetic energy of conversion products. Research is still in progress. Technology is being patented.

Analysis of results had major significance-a new quality developed — a design of highly effective and eco-friendly energy technology based on new (for the conversion process) physical approach. Successful practical implementation of non-thermal activation of physical and chemical processes- in FAM- at exceeding atmosphere pressure- without application of any third-party appliances (e.g. lasers) to activate chemical agents. Vibration-excited molecules lead to super-active chemical agents with a few dozen microseconds long lifetime. Super-active chemical agents easily join chemical reactions and their speeds increase drastically.

Quantum-chemical reactor with high-speed and stable hydro conversion — ultra-lean methane-air mixture (MAM) was achieved (Picture 1).

Picture 1: Experimental quantum-chemical Quanttor reactor.

In the Quanttor reactor demonstrated at the picture -study of the processed managed energy and mass exchange between «cold» MAM (15…45 °C, methane content of 2.5… 10% abs.) and «hot» (350…1200 °C) conversion products at pressure rates exceeding atmosphere pressure (1…10 atmospheres).

Quanttor reactor provides the opportunity to perform managed hydro conversion of super-lean FAMs (the lowest acceptable value of heat energy for FAM hydro conversion equals to 5 kcal/mole or 275 kcal/ncbm).

A model to define critical conditions of quantum-chemical conversion the following reactions may be used:

N2* ==> CO2*==> H2O*
H2O* + H2O* == > H2O + H + OH

CH4 + H2O*<=> CO + 3H2
H + O2 < = > ОН + O
ОH + H2 < = > H2O + Н
O + H2 <=> OH + H
Н +wall < = > death of H
СО + О < = > СО2
Н + О2 + М < => НО2 + M
НO2 + H2 <=> Н2O2 + H

We have experimentally ascertained that chemical reactions involving converted fuel (methane):

  • Proceed fast enough even at conversion temperature of 350 °C (Picture 2);
  • 3–4 ms is sufficient time for chemical reactions inside the reactor (optimal conversion temperature — 1150…1200 °C) to be fully completed;
  • Methane activation energy equals 5…6 kcal/mole;
  • Fuel conversion process is not significantly dependent on temperature;
  • No thermal gradient is observed within the conversion zone.

5% methane content in MAM is the level above, which a misbalance emerges in hydro conversion process between the energy required to convert fuel and the energy, produced while converting chemical energy. Further increase of methane concentration in MAM goes along with proportional decrease in temperature of conversion products output from the quantum reactor.

Due to involvement of super-active chemical agents -Quanttor reactor provides for perfect conditions in order to achieve exceptionally highly efficient energy conversion and super-low emission levels for NOx, CO and CH — high conversion speed, relatively low conversion temperature, and absence of thermal gradients.

Picture 2: Minimal methane conversion temperature (experiment).

To create a revolutionary, highly economical, and exceptionally clean quantum-chemical reactor that exceeds the existing detonative combustion chambers in virtually all indices-we had to arrange the whole array of required and sufficient conditions. Some of these conditions are specified in USP No. 7,086,854 and at Pictures 3…8.

Picture 3: Temperature profile inside Quanttor reactor.

Picture 4: Velocity diagram inside quantum-chemical Quanttor reactor.

Picture 5: Radial velocity at entrance to quantum-chemical Quanttor reactor.

Picture 6: Axis velocity at entrance to quantum-chemical Quanttor reactor.

One should also note the phenomenal ability of Quanttor quantum reactor to run on mixtures containing low-calorie fuel and air with carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water content over the top limit.

Picture 7: Concentration limits of flame propagation inside CC and quantum-chemical Quanttor reactor.

Picture 8: Composition and calorific capacity of low-calorie fuel.

Hydrocarbon fuel hydro conversion Quanttor technology being patented was tested at the test-benches of ALM Turbine, Dynegy (patented portion of technology) and Alturdyne (Pictures 9 & 10) companies.

Picture 9: Quanttor reactor at the test-bench of ALM Turbine.

Picture 10: Test-rig of Alturdyne Company where it was confirmed that the Quanttor reactor could run as part of GTE. On the left: A. M. Rakhmailov, Author of the technology.

Quanttor reactor snapshot:

1. Energy conversion completeness, %
2. NOx content in conversion products (15% of O2), ppm under
3. The minimum quantity of methane in MAM (LBO), %
4. Conversion temperature, °C
5. Optimal methane content in MAM, %
6. Optimal oxygen content in MAM, %
7. Max. acceptable CO2 content in fuel, %
8. Max. acceptable N2 content in fuel, %


  1. Quantum-chemical Quanttor reactor is an appliance for hydro conversion of fuel (obtaining hydrogen and CO) and energy (converting energy from chemical reaction directly to kinetic energy of products resulting from the specified chemical reactions).
  2. Quanttor quantum-chemical reactor utilizes chemical processes with high speed exceeding the speed of equilibrium distribution of energy released during conversion.